The vast white marble floors surrounding Islam’s holiest site, the cube-shaped Kaaba in Mecca, would normally be packed with hundreds of thousands of pilgrims from around the world the day before the hajj.

On Tuesday, however, only a few officials and workers putting last minute preparations in place were seen at the Grand Mosque housing the Kaaba, the Associated Press reports.

The area around the Kaaba being prepared for pilgrims, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Only about 1,000 pilgrims will be allowed to perform the annual hajj pilgrimage this year due to the pandemic. Photograph: Ministry of Media/AP

In place of the 2.5 million pilgrims who preformed the hajj last year, only a very limited number of faithful anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 are being allowed to take part in what is largely a symbolic pilgrimage amid the coronavirus outbreak.

The select few approved for this year’s hajj have been tested for the virus and are self-isolating in hotel rooms in Mecca, where they will experience an ancient pilgrimage albeit tailored this year for a modern-day global pandemic.

Amr Al-Maddah, the chief planning officer at the Ministry of Hajj, is helping incorporate the latest technology into the pilgrimage such as thermal scanners and electronic ID cards. “Right now, technology is our black horse to developing the whole hajj journey,” said al-Maddah.

We are taking every step possible to make sure that this hajj will end with zero cases of Covid-19 and also with zero deaths in our total hajj numbers.

Before pilgrims could enter Mecca, they were given wristbands by the Saudi health ministry to monitor their movements and ensure the mandatory quarantine was observed. Thermal scanners are being used across the holy sites to monitor people’s temperatures.

Each pilgrim is assigned to a group of around 20 others. A group leader will guide them throughout the hajj to each destination at a specified time, to avoid crowding in places like the Grand Mosque, where Muslims circle the Kaaba and follow a path travelled by the Prophet Abrahams wife, Hagar, who Muslims believe ran between two hills searching for water for her dying son.

While on Mount Arafat, where the Prophet Muhammad delivered his final sermon nearly 1,400 years ago and where pilgrims will spend Thursday in deep prayer and repentance, the pilgrims will be wearing high-tech ID cards that connect to an application on their phones.

The card and app allows the government to easily monitor the pilgrims, and gives them a way to reach out to their group leader and make special meal requests. The card stores the pilgrims personal information, health status, residence and other hajj-related details. In the future, al-Maddah said the cards will be fitted with a location tracker to follow individual pilgrims movements. The tracker will be managed by a control room, and can be used as a pay card in place of cash.

The hallways of the Grand Mosque deserted during the annual hajj pilgrimage amid the coronavirus crisis in Saudi Arabia’s holy city of Mecca. Some 2.5 million people from all over the world usually participate in the ritual that takes place over several days. This year’s hajj will be held under strict hygiene protocols, with access limited to pilgrims under 65 years old and without any chronic illnesses. Photograph: Saudi Ministry of Media/AFP/Getty Images

Pilgrims have also been given special attire to wear during the hajj laced with silver nano technology that helps kill bacteria and makes clothes water resistant. Al-Maddah said the measure is a precaution, even if it can affect almost nothing” or has a minimal chance of improving health conditions.”

All the pilgrims’ meals, hotel accommodation, transportation and health care is also being paid for by the Saudi government. Typically, the hajj can cost thousands of dollars for pilgrims who save for a lifetime for the journey.

This year marks the first time in nearly a century of Saudi rule over Mecca that people from outside the kingdom will not take part in the five-day hajj, which is a once in a lifetime requirement of Muslims. Al-Maddah, who sits on the hajj planning committee, said allowing people to enter Saudi Arabia from abroad would have posed a global health risk.

Two-thirds of pilgrims this year are foreigners already residing in Saudi Arabia from among the 160 different nationalities that would have normally been represented at the hajj. The other one-third are Saudi security personnel and medical staff. All pilgrims had to be between the ages of 20 and 50 with no terminal illnesses and showing no symptoms of the coronavirus.

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